Manufacturing can be categorised into two broad areas, discrete manufacturing and process manufacturing.


Discrete Manufacturing

Discrete manufacturing refers to the fabrication of components and assembly of modules, resulting in discrete units of products that are easily identifiable. These units can be produced in low volume with very high complexity or high volumes of low complexity. Examples of discrete components or products are metal parts made through stamping or machining, and plastic parts made through injection molding. Such components are commonly found in products such as toy, aerospace, consumer electronics, automotive interiors and medical devices.

- Metal
- Plastic
- Rubber

- Aerospace
- Automotive
- Medical technology
- Consumer electronics
- Industrial equipment
- System integration
- Oil and gas

- Printed Circuit Board Assembly

Intellectual property is in design.

Process Manufacturing

Process manufacturing refers to the blending, mixing or property transformation of products through a specific formulation or processing (usually through chemical means or heat) of the product, rather than assembly or production of discrete parts through mechanical processes. Examples of process manufacturing include the formulation of chemical products (e.g. paint, surfactants), heat or chemical treatment to components, and manufacturing of food products. It is common in specialty chemicals, fuels, pharmaceutical, semiconductor and material processing industry.



Material Processing

- Metal sheets
- Plastic resins
- Foam blocks

(wafer fab)

Intellectual property is in formulation.